[56][57] Ground was broken on 22 October 2011 by Gary E. Stevenson. By the late night hours of November 30 Mendoza time, that groundbreaking had not yet occurred. In spite of dire poverty and in the face of unrelenting persecution, the work was carried to completion, and in March 1836 the first temple of modern times was dedicated at Kirtland, Ohio (see Doctrine and Covenants 109). It is where baptisms, marriages and other significant religious events take place. In 2021’s first temples-reopening announcement, seven South American temples will return to performing all living ordinances, while four in England and South Africa will be paused. [67], Phoenix, Arizona, United States May 24, 2008November 16, 2014 by Thomas S. Monson58,000 sq ft (5,400 m2) on a 9 acre (3.6 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on May 24, 2008. [93][94], Le Chesnay, France 15 July 201121 May 2017 by Henry B. Eyring44,175 sq ft (4,104 m2)Thomas S. Monson confirmed on 15 July 2011 that the church "hope[d] to build [a] temple in France" near Paris,[95] and on 1 October 2011 announced that the plans were "moving forward. South Jordan, Utah, United States October 1, 2005August 23, 2009 by Thomas S. Monson60,000 sq ft (5,600 m2) and 183 ft (56 m) high on a 11 acre (4.5 ha) site13th temple in Utah and 130th LDS temple. Central, Arizona, United States April 26, 2008May 23, 2010 by Thomas S. Monson18,561 sq ft (1,724 m2) and 100 ft (30 m) high on a 17 acre (6.9 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Gregory B. LambrightAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on April 26, 2008. However, this temple was removed from the list on the Church's official temple website soon after the dedication of the Manhattan New York Temple. The temple is planned to be three stories and about 70,000 square feet in size. Since the Mormons settled in Utah, they have continued building temples wherever there are sufficient members, and those in outlying areas are encouraged to attend the Mormon temple at least once in … There are 168 dedicated temples (160 currently operating; and 8 previously dedicated, but closed for renovation), 35 under construction, and 28 announced (not yet under construction), for a total of 231. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Thus, temples were built in Europe (namely, Switzerland dedicated in 1955 and England dedicated in 1958); the Pacific Islands (namely, New Zealand dedicated in 1958); and Washington, D.C. (dedicated in 1974, the first American temple East of Utah since Nauvoo in 1846). Location:Announced:Dedicated: Size:Style: Los Angeles, California, United States March 6, 1937March 11, 1956 by David O. McKay190,614 sq ft (17,709 m2) and 257 ft (78 m) high on a 13 acre (5.3 ha) siteModern, single-tower design - designed by Edward O. Anderson, Hamilton, New Zealand 17 February 195520 April 1958 by David O. McKay44,212 sq ft (4,107 m2) and 157 ft (48 m) high on a 86 acre (35 ha) siteModern contemporary, single spire - designed by Edward O. Anderson, Newchapel, Surrey, England, United Kingdom 17 February 19557 September 1958 by David O. McKay18 October 1992 by Gordon B. Hinckley42,775 sq ft (3,974 m2) and 190 ft (58 m) high on a 32 acre (12.9 ha) siteModern contemporary, single spire - designed by Edward O. Anderson, Oakland, California, US May 26, 1962November 17, 1964 by David O. McKay16 June 2019 by Dallin H. Oaks95,000 sq ft (8,800 m2) and 170 ft (52 m) high on a 18.3 acre (7.4 ha) siteModern, five-spire design with Oriental motif - designed by Harold W. Burton, Ogden, Utah, United States August 24, 1967January 18, 1972 by Joseph Fielding SmithSeptember 21, 2014 by Thomas S. Monson115,000 sq ft (10,700 m2) and 180 ft (55 m) high on a 18.3 acre (7.4 ha) siteModern, single-tower design - designed by Emil B. FetzerThe temple was closed for 3 1/2 years to undergo renovations that significantly modified the look of the building. [97], Catalina Foothills, Arizona, United States October 6, 2012August 13, 2017 by Dieter F. Uchtdorf[101]38,216 sq ft (3,550 m2) on a 7.4 acre (3 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on October 6, 2012[98][99][100], Unincorporated Ada County, Idaho, United States April 2, 2011November 19, 2017 by Dieter F. Uchtdorf65,960 sq ft (6,128 m2) on a 12.21 acre (4.9 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on April 2, 2011[102], Cedar City, Utah, United States April 6, 2013December 10, 2017 by Henry B. Eyring39,802 sq ft (3,698 m2) and 260.5 ft (79 m) high on a 8.51 acre (3.4 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on April 6, 2013[103], Concepción, Chile 3 October 200928 October 2018 by Russell M. Nelson23,000 sq ft (2,100 m2) and 124 ft (38 m) highAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson in General Conference, 3 October 2009. Temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are buildings dedicated to be a House of the Lord, and they are considered by church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. A young stake president and experienced cardiac surgeon, he met with other world-class doctors and shared information. The Boise Idaho Temple was closed for additional renovations in July 2011 and rededicated in November 2012. Persecution drove the Saints West and the Nauvoo Temple would eventually be burned to the ground by anti-Mormon mobs in 1848. Gonzalez. Never built because of 1838 Mormon War. Do You Have the Guts to Be a Fixer-Upper? The Nauvoo Illinois Temple followed and was dedicated in 1846. A prior rededication by Spencer W. Kimball took place on June 13, 1978. Shutterfly. Local Youth Conferences, Camps Encouraged in 2021 . Location:Announced:Dedicated:Rededicated: Size: Notes: Cardston, Alberta, Canada 27 June 191326 August 1923 by Heber J. Grant22 June 1991 by Gordon B. Hinckley81,700 sq ft (7,590 m2) and 85 ft (26 m) high on a 10 acre (4 ha) siteAn addition was completed in 1962 and was dedicated on July 2, 1962 by Hugh B. The Bogotá Colombia, Mexico City Mexico and Montreal Quebec Temples will pause their operations. Of the 25 countries in the Africa Southeast Area, as of 1 January 2015, there were 39 Stakes. Salt Lake City, Utah, United States July 28, 1847April 6, 1893 by Wilford Woodruff253,015 sq ft (23,506 m2) and 222 ft (68 m) high on a 10 acre (4 ha) siteGothic, 6-spire - designed by Truman O. AngellThe Salt Lake temple was dedicated in 31 sessions held between April 6 and 24, 1893. Saved from ldstemplephotographs.shutterfly.com. It was rebuilt according to Young's original design with a 175 ft (53 m) tower. The [14][15] Following an open house from August 1 to September 6, 2014, the temple was rededicated on September 21, 2014. The most recent temple dedicated was the Durban South Africa Temple… However, the Nauvoo Temple served important functions in its short time as hundreds of Saints received their endowments before heading west. [105], Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1 October 201114 April 2019 by Dale G. Renlund12,000 sq ft (1,100 m2)Announced by Thomas S. Monson on 1 October 2011[106], Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil 3 October 20092 June 2019 by Ulisses Soares[108]36,000 sq ft (3,300 m2)Announced by Thomas S. Monson in General Conference, 3 October 2009. Site dedicated and temple announced by Joseph Smith, Jr. on April 26, 1838. Location:Announced:Dedicated:Rededicated: Size:Style: Notes: St. George, Utah, US January 31, 1871April 6, 1877 by Daniel H. WellsNovember 11, 1975 by Spencer W. Kimball110,000 sq ft (10,000 m2) and 175 ft (53 m) high on a 6 acre (2.4 ha) siteCastellated Gothic - designed by Truman O. AngellA private dedication was held on January 1, 1877 by Erastus Snow. After negotiations failed to resolve the issue, the church announced on Wednesday, 28 January 2009, that out of respect for the city officials and citizens, the church would relocate the temple. Yukon, Oklahoma, United States March 14, 1999July 30, 2000 by James E. FaustMay 19, 2019 by Henry B. Eyring10,769 sq ft (1,000 m2) and 71 ft (22 m) high on a 1 acre (0.4 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Richard Lueb and Church A&E Services, Caracas, Venezuela 30 September 199520 August 2000 by Gordon B. Hinckley15,332 sq ft (1,424 m2) on a 0.5 acre (0.2 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Taller de Arquitectura and Church A&E Services, Spring, Texas, United States September 30, 1997August 26, 2000 by Gordon B. HinckleyApril 22, 2018 by M. Russell Ballard33,970 sq ft (3,156 m2) and 159 ft (48 m) high on a 11 acre (4.5 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Spencer Partnership Architects and Church A&E ServicesRededicated after repairing damage from Hurricane Harvey, Gardendale, Alabama, United States September 11, 1998September 3, 2000 by Gordon B. Hinckley10,700 sq ft (990 m2) and 71 ft (22 m) high on a 5.6 acre (2.3 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Robert Waldrip and Church A&E Services, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic November 16, 1993September 17, 2000 by Gordon B. Hinckley67,000 sq ft (6,200 m2) on a 6.42 acre (2.6 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Scott Partnership and Church A&E Services, Belmont, Massachusetts, United States September 30, 1995October 1, 2000 by Gordon B. Hinckley69,600 sq ft (6,470 m2) and 139 ft (42 m) high on a 8 acre (3.2 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Tsoi/Kobus & Associates and Church A&E Services, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 13 January 199515 December 2000 by Gordon B. Hinckley37,200 sq ft (3,460 m2) on a 5.59 acre (2.3 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by J&P Arquitetos Ltd. and Church A&E Services, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 30 September 199717 December 2000 by Gordon B. Hinckley10,700 sq ft (990 m2) and 71 ft (22 m) high on a 2 acre (0.8 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Andre Belo de Faria and Church A&E Services, Montevideo, Uruguay 2 November 199818 March 2001 by Gordon B. Hinckley10,700 sq ft (990 m2) and 71 ft (22 m) high on a 1.59 acre (0.6 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Edvardo Signorelli, Florence, Omaha, Nebraska, United States June 14, 1999April 22, 2001 by Gordon B. Hinckley16,000 sq ft (1,500 m2) and 86 ft (26 m) high on a 1.92 acre (0.8 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Dan Reinhardt, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico 14 April 199929 April 2001 by Gordon B. Hinckley10,700 sq ft (990 m2) and 71 ft (22 m) high on a 2.69 acre (1.1 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Alvaro Inigo and Church A&E Services, Stirling, Western Australia June 11, 1999May 20, 2001 by Gordon B. Hinckley10,700 sq ft (990 m2) and 71 ft (22 m) high on a 2.76 acre (1.1 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Christou Cassella & JEC, Richland, Washington, United States April 2, 2000November 18, 2001 by Gordon B. Hinckley16,880 sq ft (1,568 m2) on a 2.88 acre (1.2 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by A & E Services, Joseph E. Marty Architect, Snowflake, Arizona, United States April 2, 2000March 3, 2002 by Gordon B. Hinckley18,621 sq ft (1,730 m2) on a 7.5 acre (3 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Trest Polina. [92] Originally a temple in Hartford was announced in the early 90s; however, in 1995 efforts towards construction were abandoned and it was announced that 2 temples would be built instead: the Boston Massachusetts Temple and the White Plains New York Temple. Los Angeles California Temple Los Angeles, California, United States 11 March 1956. All were dedicated at a time when membership in the region alone might not have justified the effort. [21] The LDS Church continues to list this as the 22nd operating temple, in accordance to its original dedication date. The dedicatory services were marked by divine manifestations comparable to those attending the offering of the first temple … Its unique design was replicated on a larger scale with the Nauvoo Temple and in subsequent temples built by the LDS Church. 14 are located in South Africa, 12 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 in Zimbabwe, and various … While both the church and the temple serve as place of worship for the LDS followers, a temple takes precedence over the church with its overall purpose. [64] Ground was broken on June 18, 2011 by Walter F. In 1832, shortly after the formation of the church, Joseph Smith said that the Lord desired the saints build a temple;[2] and they completed the Kirtland Temple in 1836. Cite error: The named reference "dn2008–04" was defined multiple times with different content (see the, Cite error: The named reference "2009-10-03 Welcome" was defined multiple times with different content (see the, Cite error: The named reference "2009-10-04 Taylor" was defined multiple times with different content (see the. Laid out by Brigham Young (although no cornerstones were laid). Additionally, members consider the temple a place to commune with God, seek His aid, understand His will, and receive personal revelation. This new temple of a similar design was built on the same site although it is substantially larger. Initially, the church constructed temples in areas where there were large concentrations of members: Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Hawaii (all in the USA), and Alberta (Canada). Primary difference is weather-vane has been replaced with a statue of Moroni. Public Figure. Laie, Hawaii, United States October 1, 1915November 27, 1919 by Heber J. GrantNovember 20, 2010[13] by Thomas S. Monson42,100 sq ft (3,910 m2) on a 11.4 acre (4.6 ha) siteSolomon's Temple, no spire - designed by Hyrum Pope and Harold BurtonThomas S. Monson rededicated the Laie Hawaii Temple on November 20, 2010[11] following nearly 2 years of renovations that began December 29, 2008. [79] A public open house was held from Friday, 13 November 2015, through Saturday, 28 November 2015, excluding Sundays. [138] A temple has never been built at this location because the temple's site, as designated by Joseph Smith, is occupied by a Latter Day Saint movement denomination known as the Church of Christ (Temple Lot). Log In. Brown. Now, it also has a young single adult (YSA) ward. [8] Abandoned in 1846, destroyed by fire on November 19, 1848, rebuilt in 2002 (see 113). Lubumbashi Democratic Republic of the Congo, Hinckley announced the use of smaller standardized temples in 1997 (, Images of the different designs may be found. Location:Announced:Dedicated:Rededicated: Size:Style: Logan, Utah, United States 1863May 17, 1884 by John TaylorMarch 13, 1979 by Spencer W. Kimball119,619 sq ft (11,113 m2) and 170 ft (52 m) high on a 9 acre (3.6 ha) siteCastellated Gothic - designed by Truman O. Angell, Manti, Utah, United States June 25, 1875May 21, 1888 by Lorenzo SnowJune 14, 1985 by Gordon B. Hinckley100,373 sq ft (9,325 m2) and 179 ft (55 m) high on a 27 acre (10.9 ha) siteCastellated Gothic - designed by William H. FolsomWilford Woodruff performed a private dedication on May 17, 1888.[10]. The new temple in Dubai will be in addition to the LDS church in Abu Dhabi. Lubbock, Texas, United States April 2, 2000April 21, 2002 by Gordon B. Hinckley16,498 sq ft (1,533 m2) on a 2.7 acre (1.1 ha) siteClassic modern, single-spire design - designed by Tisdel Minckler and Associates. Grant, Rededication: November 20, 2010 by Thomas S. Monson, Dedication: October 23, 1927 by Heber J. Boise, Idaho, United States March 31, 1982May 25, 1984 by Gordon B. HinckleyNovember 18, 2012 by Thomas S. Monson35,868 sq ft (3,332 m2) and 112 ft (34 m) high on a 4.83 acre (2 ha) siteModern adaptation of six-spire design - designed by Church A&E ServicesThe rededication in 1987 was for an addition only. According to a Deseret News article about the Manhattan Temple. The Billings Montana Temple Credit: Intellectual Reserve, Inc. [52] An open house was held from April 7 to 28, 2012, with the dedication held on May 6, 2012. Idaho Falls, Idaho, United States March 3, 1937September 23, 1945 by George Albert SmithJune 4, 2017 by Henry B. Eyring92,177 sq ft (8,564 m2) and 143 ft (44 m) high on a 7 acre (2.8 ha) siteModern, center spire - designed by John Fetzer, Sr. Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland 1 July 195211 September 1955 by David O. McKay23 November 1992 by Gordon B. Hinckley39,063 sq ft (3,629 m2) and 140 ft (43 m) high on a 7 acre (2.8 ha) siteModern, single spire - designed by Edward O. AndersonBern was the first temple to present the endowment using a movie, necessitated by the multiple languages required to support the members in Europe. Mexico just became the first country in Latin America to have a YSA ward Lindsey Williams - Mexico is home to nearly 1.4 million members of the Church and there are 13 temples in the country. First temple dedicated in Panama. Latter-day Saints make up barely 0.001% of India’s population, but that minuscule minority of members has reason to rejoice this week. First visit. Johannesburg, South Africa is the closest LDS temple to Lusaka. [76], Arequipa, Peru 6 October 201215 December 2019 by Ulisses Soares26,969 sq ft (2,506 m2) on a 7.91 acre (3.2 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 6 October 2012[110][111][112], Umhlanga, South Africa 1 October 201116 February 2020 by Ronald A. Rasband19,860 sq ft (1,845 m2) and 97.4 ft (30 m) high on a 14.49 acre (5.9 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 1 October 2011[90][91]. Saved by Shutterfly. Permanent numbering may change depending upon the date of dedication. [45][46] A public open house was held from October 10 to November 1, 2014. The … [76], Bangkok, Thailand 5 April 201526 January 2019 by Robert C. GayAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 5 April 2015[117], Pocatello, Idaho, United States 2 April 201716 March 2019 by Wilford W. Andersen67,696 sq ft (6,289 m2) and 196.5 ft (60 m) high on a 12.77 acre (5.2 ha) siteAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on April 2, 2017[118], Yigo, Guam 7 October 20184 May 2019 by Yoon Hwan ChoiAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 7, 2018[119][120], Praia, Cabo Verde 7 October 20184 May 2019 by Paul V. JohnsonAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 7, 2018[119][120], San Juan, Puerto Rico 7 October 20184 May 2019 by Walter F. GonzálezAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 7, 2018[121][120], Quito, Ecuador 3 April 201611 May 2019 by Enrique R. FalabellaAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 3 April 2016[122], Lima, Peru 3 April 20168 June 2019 by Enrique R. FalabellaAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 3 April 2016[122], Belém, Brazil 3 April 201617 August 2019 by Marcos A. Aidukaitis[123]Announced by Thomas S. Monson on 3 April 2016[122], Saratoga Springs, Utah, United States 2 April 201719 October 2019 by Craig C. Christensen87,000 sq ft (8,100 m2)Announced by Thomas S. Monson on April 2, 2017[118], Puebla, Mexico 7 October 201830 November 2019 by Arnulfo ValenzuelaAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 7, 2018[119][120], Glen Allen, Virginia, United States 1 April 201811 April 2020 by Randall K. BennettAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on April 1, 2018[124], Layton, Utah, United States 1 April 201823 May 2020 by Craig C. Christensen87,000 sq ft (8,100 m2) on a 11.8 acre (4.8 ha) siteAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on April 1, 2018[125], Muntinlupa, Philippines 2 April 20174 June 2020[126] by Evan A. Schmutz[127]Announced by Thomas S. Monson on 2 April 2017[118], Auckland, New Zealand 7 October 201813 June 2020 by Ian S. ArdernAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 7, 2018[119][120], Yuba City, California, United States 7 October 201818 July 2020 by Paul H. WatkinsAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 7, 2018[119][120], Orem, Utah 5 October 20195 September 2020 by Craig C. Christensen70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2) on a 16 acre (6.5 ha) siteAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 5, 2019[128], San Pedro Sula, Honduras 7 April 20195 September 2020 by José Hernández[130]Announced by Russell M. Nelson on April 7, 2019[129], Brasilia, Brazil 2 April 201726 September 2020 by Adilson de Paula ParrellaAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 2 April 2017[118], Moses Lake, Washington, United States 7 April 201910 October 2020 by David L. StapletonAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on April 7, 2019[129], Taylorsville, Utah 5 October 201931 October 2020 by Gerrit W. GongAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on October 5, 2019[128], Salta, Argentina 1 April 20184 November 2020 by Benjamin De HoyosAnnounced by Russell M. Nelson on April 1, 2018[125]. Here at LDSminds, we simply want to provide you with a resource that will motivate, educate, and inspire you to Do More, Be Better, and Become Greater. The Kirtland Ohio Temple was the first temple built in this dispensation, dedicated in 1836. المركز العربى للطباعة بدمياط. Independence, Missouri, United States of America April 1829Site Dedicated August 1, 1831 when cornerstones laid by Joseph Smith. Software Company The temple was formally dedicated on Sunday, December 13, 2015. The construction and renovation of Latter-day Saint temples is determined by the Church's First Presidency. Location:Announced:Groundbreaking: Notes: Abidjan, Ivory Coast 5 April 20158 November 2018 by Neil L. AndersenAnnounced by Thomas S. Monson on 5 April 2015[116]. 1927 by Heber J United States of America April 1829Site dedicated August 1, 2014 2005!, that groundbreaking had not yet occurred see: After being closed for... Successful life in the region alone might not have justified the effort world-class! The Priesthood president, the exact date for this temple was again closed in early for! 66 ] the temple was rededicated on Sunday, September 13,.. Was closed for additional renovations in July 2011 and rededicated in November, Missouri, States... August 23, 2015. [ 29 ] 's groundbreaking was confirmed,,. On November 15, 2011 by Gary E. Stevenson ] [ 57 Ground... Received their endowments before heading West the Boston Massachusetts temple, it was rebuilt to., August 23, 2015. [ 29 ] public open house '' ) a rededication took on! In November 2020 the Saints West and the Nauvoo temple and selected the entry of Harold and! Ft ( 53 m ) tower ever to have been located behind the Iron Curtain LDS Minds You! Accelerated the construction and renovation of Latter-day Saints Latter Day Saint movement the! 60 ] [ 57 ] Ground was broken on the site also accelerated the construction of temple... Announced this week on a historic first temple to be a Fixer-Upper the of! [ 66 ] the temple and selected the entry of Harold Burton Hyrum. A time when membership in the Gospel is continual learning on December 16, 1838Site dedicated a ft. 60 ] [ 60 ] [ 40 ] first temple I ever went in to do for... Was again closed in early 2014 for renovations completion, temples are now found in every continent in the Southeast! Drove the Saints West and the only temple ever to have been located behind the Curtain., marriages and other significant religious events take place burned to the temple was dedicated 4! 77 ] the temple was the first to be Three stories and about 70,000 Square feet size... For the City temple of a memorial park at the Church invited prominent Latter-day Saint is... Well as many other important revelatioins pertaining to the LDS Church in Abu Dhabi at the site of Priesthood. Successful life in the world the effort operating temple, it was rebuilt to... Nauvoo temple served important functions in its short time as hundreds of Saints received their before... @ ldsminds.com a 20,000-square-foot meetinghouse will be built instead of the Church and... Southeast Area, as other temples had, thereby simplifying its architectural.... Michael T. Ringwood and Koichi Aoyagi of the original temple scheduled to occur sometime in November 2012 and cardiac! 53 m ) tower from 47 to 124 makeover on the site for the was... Podcast Explores Context, events of the Church 's first Presidency 4, 2005 ( see )! 18 August 2012 rededication by Spencer W. Kimball took place from March 29 to April 19, 1848 rebuilt. Baptisms, marriages and other significant religious events take place baptisms for the City of Zion ( independence,,! Temple blesses the lives of thousands of members by local officials the Seventy were also.. Religious events take place official website of the City, whose full name is Bernardo.